General information on fungi

Fungi are organisms belonging to the kingdom FUNGI, unlike the plants, autotrophic organisms that is able by themselves to self-produce the nutrients, are heterotrophic organisms, similar to the animals, which means that they are not able to autonomously synthesize their nourishment, devovo find ready-made organic substances and therefore can be obtained in the following ways:


The saprophytic fungi are decomposers, were born to eat and not to be eaten, using the residual organic substances allowing the decomposition of plant organisms and dead animals decompose the complex organic matter in the environment and redistribute turning it into simple inorganic material, in this step get the nutrients he needs to live. So saprophytic fungi, along with protozoa and bacteria, are the basis of the food chain, the first step that allows life on planet earth !!!


Parasitic fungi feed on other living organisms, affecting plants, animals or other still living fungi, which compete for nutrients necessary for sustenance. The attacked plants are generally weak and sick, remain so in the woods the most vigorous and healthy (selective cleaning). Even human mycoses are caused by parasitic fungi which attack our body (candida).


The fungi establish a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with plants by means of hyphae, enter into symbiosis with the roots of trees through a structure called mycorrhiza (Greek, Mikos = fungus and riza = root) yielding water and minerals and receiving substances already processed as sugars. In a forest almost all the trees have their symbiotic fungi, only the oaks, Quercus pubescens, more than 80 symbiosis with different fungal species were identified.


Fungi are organisms belonging to the kingdom FUNGI, unlike plants, autotrophic organisms that is able alone to self-produce the nutrients, are heterotrophic organisms, like animals, this means that they are unable to synthesize autonomously their nourishment. We distinguish saprophytic fungi, parasites and symbionts. “MUSHROOMS WITHOUT THERE ‘BOSCO BOSCO AND WITHOUT THERE’ LIFE”!

The species of mushrooms are numerous, it is estimated that there are in the world a half million species, but those described by mycologists are still only 6% (about 99,000) many of them are so small that they are only visible under a microscope; others reach large dimensions and are the ones that are best known and used by man.

The edible mushrooms are considered a food delicacy but use sparingly that is provided by nature; However, to be able to go find and must have a minimum of notions “Technical” and “laws” in order to recognize and distinguish those edible and poisonous, although it is always better to rely on professional reference: The Mycologist. You can use the control of fungi collected by mycologists ASL or Groups Mycological in the area.


Porcino Mushroom


Porcino mushroom, as it is commonly called, is a name that brings together all the various species belonging to the same genus (Boletus). The criterion to distinguish the different species is especially the place where they are born and types of symbionts trees in addition to their basic colors and morphological characteristics for the correct recognition. Here we have described and treated the species Boletus edulis.

Boletus edulis

Boletus edulis is the species of the genus Boletus known as porcini in the true sense of the word.

It appears under the hemispherical cap, fleshy, more or less open. The surface is greasy is a bit ‘wrinkly, especially towards the margin and the color ranges from light brown to dark brown.

Pores and tubules are light in color: at first are white, then become yellowish-greenish.

The stem is fleshy, generally larger downward. The meat is white, unchanging in color, compact and firm in all parts. It grows in forests of coniferous trees is that deciduous summer to autumn.


It is a well-known fungus for its edibility. And ‘the most sought after mushroom and delicious, to be prepared in every way that gastronomy teaches. Common names can be Brisa, Ceppatello and Porcino. Marketing can be fresh, frozen, and is reduced in powder or dried fragments.


The basidiomycetes were expressed by Russule, are equipped with their very simple morphological setting and totally recognizable, such that they can even define monotonous (it is not difficult, even for beginners, find a Russula).

Russula virescens

The Russula virescens is also known by the name of Verdone or Colombina green. It takes its name from the Latin word “virescens” which means “green.” This fungus has a fleshy cap, following plan and then epressed and concave in the center; The color ranges from green to yellowish green cracked with dimensions of up to 15 cm in diameter.

The slats are very dense and of a white color while the stem is quite short, white and cylindrical shape; the meat of Russula virescens is white and compact with no particular smell, the taste is pleasant.


The Russula virescens normally found in deciduous forests with a preference for oak, though it is also frequently under the beech and chestnut trees.

Those who know the mushrooms well knows that the Russula virescens, in spite of his not exactly inviting color, is a good fungus that can be harvested. Often the stem of Russula virescens should be eliminated as it is emptied by the larvae and therefore unusable; thanks to the particular hardness of the pulp, the greenfinch can also be breaded and fried in oil or grilled.


Parasol Mushroom

Macrolepiota procera

This fungus is very well known since it can reach considerable size (30 cm) both in height and in width. And ‘it considered a very good mushroom from the canteen and there are many vulgar names used to define it. The very long and slender stalk has a rugged movable ring, should be discarded because of its toughness, the meat, the young fish is white and tender with a nice smell, unlike when you get older that becomes quite tough and not suitable for consumption .


In addition to size to report its particular shape and delicacy of its meat, especially the hat that is much appreciated in breading.


Hat, even when locked in his juvenile stage, resembles a Beater (hence the name); in the next stage when the cap is opened, thanks to its considerable size resembles an umbrella, from which another name very used to define who is “Parasol mushroom”.

The Latin word “procerus” literally means “increased by more” just to emphasize the considerable size of the drum stick.



Agaricus is a genus of fungi belonging to the basidiomycetes Agaricaceae family that includes several species. Fungi belonging to this genus are terrestrial, growing in meadows and forests rich in humus and are saprophytes. These fungi are known to collectors as PRATAROLI or TURINI.

Agaricus campestris

It has a 6-12 cm hat in diameter, hemispherical, then convex and finally lying flat, often with modest central umbo, white with some rosy reflection. The slats are thick, closed, open, pale pink that darken with age turning pink, then pink flesh and finally blackish-brown. Has a stalk of 3-6 cm x 1-2 cm, cylindrical tapered toward the pointed base, it is full. It has a firm flesh, white fracture that slowly turns to pink.


The Champignon mushroom is a very good and appreciated in various parts of the world, can be cooked either raw (occasionally), in salads or cooked in the traditional way; However, it should only consume juveniles as those that are too advanced in maturity can easily present early stages of alteration.


Classic representative of this genre is the famous “mushroom”, mushroom cultivated for Excellence (Agaricus bisporus).

The champignons were already known in ancient times as well as the Romans, as witnessed by Horace with his verses, they considered them excellent.

Warning: be careful not to confuse the Field Mushroom Agaricus campestris or other poisonous mushrooms look like the apparent how dangerous and deadly Amanita verna.

Note: Determination of fungi and their relative edibility mycologists are entrusted to experts or specialized personnel of the competent health authorities. incorrect or superficial attitudes about may cause serious damage from intoxication or poisoning or death. Do not consume mushrooms if you are not absolutely sure of their edibility.